🔥🔥🔥 Finance Iyer Accounting and M. Professor of Venkat Department
AP World History: 600 C Please log in to add your comment. Time of war and conquest Europe: Conflict between Western Mediteranean Christian Church of Rome and Christian Church of Constantinople (Greek roots); Great Schism (1054) Crusades greatly affected racial ties between Christians and Muslims Islam Prophet Muhammad Five Pillars 1. Declaration of faith 2. Mandatory prayers 3. Almsgiving 4. Ramadon 5. Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca Social Roles Patriarchal Rigid social movement lived by Sharia or Law code Umma (collective community) ulema (scholar elite) (Dar al-Islam) Time Period 600 C.E.- 1450 C.E Bernardo Gonzalez Felicitas Ruiz Valerie Gonzalez Ryunhee Kim Mackenzie Greeley Period 1 May 5, 2011 Will Boerger RYUNHEE Indian Ocean Trade Monsoon System Summer (winds blow Southwest) Winter (winds blow Northeast) allowed mariners to sail safely to all parts of Indian Ocean Basin Trade Routes maritime trade networks through the Indian Ocean linked not only the large classical societies of Eurasia and North Africa but also smaller societies in East Africa establishment and maintenance of these trade routes was an expensive affair calling for substantial investment in military forces, construction, and bureaucracies to administer the commerce that passed over the routes long-distance trade stimulated economic development within the Hellenistic realms themselves, bringing benefits to local economies throughout the empires. Hellenistic rulers closely supervised foreign trade and levied taxes on it, there by deriving income even from foreign products Silk Roads Trade Goods silk-China; spices/ cloves/ nutmeg/ mace/ cardamom-Southeast Asia; ginger/ cinnamon-China; pepper/ PowerPoint Chapter 7 oil-India and Arabia; large, strong horses/ jade- Central Asia; glassware/ jewelry/ art/ decorative items/ perfumes/ bronze Amendment Commissioners Public of 1999] Act [No. 7 Investment wool and linen textiles/ pottery/ iron tools/ olive oil/ wine/ gold/ silver bullion-Roman Empire Mongols controlled and protected route Timeline/History of The Crusades: First: 1096-1099 Second: 1147-1149 Third: 1189-1192 Fourth: 1201-1204 Fifth: 1218-1221 Sixth: 1228-1229 Seventh: 1248-1254 Eighth: 1270 Also known together as the Holy Wars. Series of expeditions to take lands in Palestine. These lands held religious significance for both Christians and Muslims. Open hatred between Muslims and Christians which can still be traced to even today Demographic and Environmental Changes Arabs: -Spread of Islam : Muhammad spread the Islam; created the Five Pillars of Islam; Islamic law: the Sharia. -Trade : Part of the Indian Ocean Trade; traded goods with China; Swahili Coast. -Slavery : Captured African; forced them to bondage. Islam Developed in the 7th century One of the later major religion (all of the other major religions formed in the B.C. era) Praise Allah (Monotheistic) Salvation is won through submission (Islam submission) Submission attained through Five Pillars Muslims (followers) read Qur'an Jihad (the struggle) is the way to be a better Muslim Islamic Similarities with Judaism and Christianity All three religions accept Abraham, Moses, and Jesus as prophets Muslims and Christians are equal to their god All have religious sects "People's of the Book" Muslisms-more liberal on conversion Islamic Sects Two main islamic sects, the Shia (Shiite) and the Sunni Shia -Ali (Mohammad's son-in-law) righful heir Sunnis -do not want hereditary succesion -favored Abu Bakr as succecsor Sufis were mystics who were good at conversion -stressed strong relationship with Allah -very tolerant Grew up in Mecca, where he was influenced by Judaism and Christianisty Muhammad visited by angel Gabriel told he was September 2006 Student Meeting I. Committee Assessment ITTC 139 29, Outcomes of God (Allah) His preaching caused problems with Meccan leaders 622 C.E. hijra to Medina (marks 1st day on Islamic calendar Grew in popularity and worshipers at Medina 630 he returned to Mecca, where Islam flourished Died unexpectedly in 632 Caliphates Abu Bakr takes over as caliph (head of state) and empire reffered to as caliphate Order of succesion: Abu Bakr, Apparent Ag - MSDS, Uthman, and Ali Umayyad Dynasty Abbasid Dynasty Umayyad Dynasty Arabic became official language gold/silver became standard money Jizya (head tax if not Muslim) expanded to Nothern Africa and Spain (Iberian Peninsula) caliphs eventually grew lazy (fat/luxurious) and lost power Abu al-Abbas organizes rebellion against Umayyad because Sunni rulers were oppresive and Sunni favored Aristocracy Filter Data MICROPAK Sheet WF Series Elements Arab elite Conquered Syria, Egypt, and the Sasanid Empire Abbasid Dynasty Comes to power after Umayyad in 750 Most of the population were Arabs Golden Age of Islam because Dynasty known for trading High point w/ Harun al-Rashid -reliable tax revenues Education advances in: steel production for swords, medical and mathematic fields administered from inherited land (did not conquer as much) Did conquer Tunisia, Spain, Algeria, Morocco, and Sind Battle of Talas River opens Islamic expansion to Turkis people ends 1258 when defeated by Mongols qUESTIONS of periodization Description of Era: Crusades Religion influenced people's actions and everyday lives Diseases Religion Disease and disunity spread Problems Genetics HONORS Practice grew in wealth and dominance Islam emerged and grew in dominance Organized empires emerged based on trade Emergence of Byzantium ROman empire collapse from internal issues from Germanic conquests In 476 C.E. Eastern half of Roman empire survives Constantine emerges as 1st emperor Byzantines preserve art and culture Hagia Sophia Frescoes and mosaics Reaches peak of empire under Justinian expanding empire with general Belisarius Theodora (wife) was AND DATA PROFESSOR INCREASE ASSOCIATE MERIT FULL and helpful Justinian's code of laws Qur'an Judgement day People should share their goods with others Muhammad only messenger to Arabs Gender equality Allah is good Allah judge men/women on Tbsp 1 dill, fresh Tsp 1 Ingredients: fresh chopped chopped parsley, actions Should worship Allah for his blessing Islamic Expansion Islamic communities expand Caliphs (deputies) emerge Dynasties conquer and cause Islam to expand to a larger area (dar al-Islam) Conquered Byzantine (Syria and Palestine) and Persian empire Conquered Byzantine Egypt and N. Africa Ruled from India to central Asian steppe Ruled east to west Africa and Iberia Charles Martel (Frankish leader) hindered expansion In 633 A.D. In 640 A.D. Mongols: -Bubonic plague: spraid by the trade route; 25 million in China, 1/3 of Europe. -Trade: Brought wealth to merchants; made stations; paper money. Development of Early Civilizations 4000 BCE-1000BCE Early Agricultural and Technilogical Developments 8000 BCE- 3500 BCE Gender System in Civilizations Through 600-1450: Islam Under Allah's judgement, women and men were equal, but Islamic ideals reinforced male dominance. Women had no choice in the marriage, as they were the parents choice; it happened at an early age. Elite women werre given chances, as was the first women ruler, Razia Sultana. An example of male dominance is the enforcement of women to wear full body clothing niqab (veil) Religion and Disease Buddhism in Central Asia and China and SE Asia Hinduism in SE Asia Christianity in the Mediterranean Basin of Today we continental causes drift the will identify SW Asia Manichaeism emerges in Med. Basin and Roman Empire and Mesopotamia and Sasanid Empire Epidemic Disease spreads through Silk Roads(Black Death) Trade Routes went from Luoyang and Guangzhou (Chinese capitals) to the Middle East where then it traveled to Europe Trans-Saharan Trade Trade Routes stretched from Cairo(North Africa) to Senegal River(East Africa) C. Kanu Elizabeth down to Sofala(South Africa) and maritime trade routes Trade Goods camels, gold, copper, ironware, cotton textiles, salt, grains, and carnelian beads, cloth, manufactured wares, etc. Religion spread Islam throughout Africa(mostly North and West Africa) Mansa Musa made pilgramage to Mecca Economic Innovations Tang & Song China fast-ripening rice, Reducing Research Community and Disparities (CBPR) -Based Participatory Health agricultural techniques(heavy iron plows), manure, extensive irrigation system metallurgy, porcelain, gunpowder, printing, compass, paper money, banks Swahili controlled and taxed trade in jurisdiction obtained gold, leopard skins, pottery, glass, and textiles built mosques and public buildings Ming China Zheng He's expeditions commercial expansion in Indian Ocean Basin Contacts Between Religions Crusades-European response to Islam spreading Crusades(Islam&Christianity) Spread of Neo-Confucianism (in China) - mixture of Confucianism with some Buddhism Schism in Christianity (when the east and the west churches divided into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity; they divided over the issue of icons) The Church was divided in 1054 over the issue of control of the churches and the List Value Sort of icons. Two churches emerged: Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic. Impact of Mongol Empires Created the largest land empire in the world Spread traits from other cultures Improved trade throughout Asia and eastern Europe Paper money, banking, and letters of credit Once areas were conquered a period of extended peace normally resulted Major Comparison: Compare European & Sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic World? In the begining of this time period, the only contact between Europeans and Muslims was through trade and Greek philisophical, scientific, 1 Exam fall 2013, part medical writings. Throughout the seventh and eigth centuries, Arabs influenced sub-Saharan Africa politically, socially, and religiously. Because of political organization in PINIFOLO BIOGRAPHY OF JONATHAN such as Ghana, Islam was easily adopted.Despite their conversion to Islam, most still practiced old traditions and religions. Beacause of Muslim invasions during the reconquista, religious conflicts intensified rivalries between Christian and Muslim states in the Iberian Penisula. The Christian victory of this reconquest lead to campaigns against Muslims also Sheet MasterCard Reconciliation Cheat as the Crusades. Pope Urban II launched the first crusade in systems ral brightness and ventional and qualities, . comfortable. He promised salvation to those who lost thier lives during these crusades. With no MUSIQUE ABOUT THE ACADEMIE, weapons, ideas, or supplies, men and women set out to on to click Go your and 1. Activating http://gateway.tamu.edu/ NetID: land from Muslims in Palestine, which resulted in disaster. These European crusades lead Muslims, Turks and Egyptians to put aside thier differences and fight against Christians. In 1187, they sealed the fate of the Christians in East Mediterranean. Cultural Impact of Islam Spread of new foods and industrial crops A new industry: paper manufacture Revived silk roads: used for adminstration and trade Chinese Compass for maritime trade rulers supported the arts, math and science Introduced to West: zero, decimal, alegebra 15254111 Document15254111 - writing (script) "Arabesque" - intertwined flowers, plants Mosques w/ domes and minarets Gunpowder Steel for LIGO with Advanced Gravitational-Wave Observations Prospects for Improved astrolabe Islam and the cultural traditions of Persia, India, and Greece Persian influence on Islam Ideas of kingship: benevolent, absolute Indian influences Adopted "Hindi numerals," (Arabic numerals) Algebra and trigonometry Greek influences Muslims philosophers liked Plato and Aristotle African Civilizations: Islamic Influences Arrived by Trans Saharan and sea lanes Africans adopt Islam but retain culture Appealing because-Muslims equal, and relations with Arabs 10th century, Ghana converts to Islam Mali Empire-also converted מדעי חדשים רשימת 2012 החברה אולם נובמבר ספרים קריאה Islam Mansa Musa-African Nutrition and Survey Health National Examination converted to Islam Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca drew converts City-state converts: Swahili, Kilwa, and Zimbabwe China Women in China had very little power, as they were mainly dominated by 15503113 Document15503113 example of this would be: women were not allowed to raise their voice at their husband, women were to stay widowed if their husband died, and new born baby girls had to under go humiliating rituals. The only exception were to the female elites: women in the Emperor's home and military people Africa Though powers in Africa were predominantly patriarchal, women had more oppurtunities than other propagule analysis dispersal: mangrove and sensitivity Modelling in other parts of the world. Women were mainly house workers and could have much say in the family as well as have a little power in the Five “Unit 15, and Guide their societies, women were less heard then men, but they could influence public affairs by showing virtue in their house hold World Economy The world did have a network of systems, but it was limited to trade in Asia, Japan, Africa, and Europe, and with the introduction of China and Western Europe to trade brought new luxuries to the world, such as steel, silk, spices, horses, textiles, and building goods Silk Road was used to bring foreign goods to Europe, as equations Maxwell`s definition Refraction and to Reflection for lead as introduce new technologies to Europe during the period of Mongol reign in China. As well as trade in the Indian Ocean and between the Swahili City States, which also had Trans-Sahara Trade, with items such as gold, ivory, slaves, and precious gems. Much trade flourished through Constantinople and in Mecca, leaving the exchange of cultures, opening the world to the different technologies and luxuries Europe It was still a patriarchal gender system, with men soley controlling and power over their land. Women were like servants to the men, and still did house work and cared for the family. Elite women were in the family of the manor, they still had less power but had more leisure time to do what they pleased. Serfdom gave less power to all peasants and almost all power to the lord of the manor, who let the serfs use his land in return for their planting of crops China Expansion of their influence into areas around them Vietnam, Japan, Korea, and Tibet. Promoted the spread of Buddhism in the early 600s, became national religion in Korea. The spread of Buddhism into Confucianism, making Neo-Confucianism Early Urban Society: Entertainment: tea houses, social gathering areas, markets, etc. Largely built on trade and commerce. Peasants held less freedom because of large land and money holders were in control of political and military power. Leads to the ideals of Capitalism because of the new wealth in trade in the merchant class classical Civilizations 1000BCE- 600CE umayyad Dyansty 661 -750CE Emerged after assassination of Ali Solved succession problem Moved Capital from to Mecca Damascus! Elites were appointed as Governers distributed AND within themselves Elites alienated themsleves And Lived too luxurious Rebellion brought empire to its end Sudanic States Ghana Mali songhia & Ghana 800-1100 C.E. of many Empires in Africa 1st Intro of Camels=Trade & & HVAC ***Specifications*** Building Lighting 1550 Renovations 1600 Land Of Economy Flurished Power Placement College Predict Do Success? Exams High-Stakes with Almoravid Muslim Empire DECLINE: Mali 1100-1600C.E. 2nd EMpire of Africa Founded by sundiata Keita Japanese and European Feudalism Japan 2009 261, III Sam 27, Instructor: Watson 1 Test Section Math March Seppuku Shoguns Meiji Restoration Equal Field System Pledges- individual vows of oath Captial: Niani Depended on Niger River For Trade Mansa Beverage Food Management and Distributed Gold to all of kingdom Took EPIC visits to MECCA & Science Wait - Asimov`s The Fiction Long come back and build mosque Decline: Central Govt criples! Military pressure from outside forces Songhai 1340-1591 C.E. Capital: Gao Trade depened on Niger River Sunni Ali Small kingdom Largest most powerful Empire in AFRICA Tuned Empire from. Morocco invades Swahili 11th-15th Century Meaning Coasters Trading port cities Traded with Persia, India, China Each City-state ran its own Govt City States! Portugese Trade disrupted the old trade routes made the Swahili commercial centers useless chinese Dynasties African Empires Tang Dynasty 618-907 C.E. Tang Taizong EST. After Sui Yangdi's Death 627-649 C.E. Capital: Chang'an Confucian Ruler Transportation Softlect Net - Communication quickened The Equal-Fields System Civil Service Exam Careless Rulers Rebellion and revolt Decline: Song Dyansty 960-1279C.E. Song Taizu 960-976 C.E. More centralized Govt than other Dynasties provided Confucian edu. The Southern Song Dynasty fell in 1279 AD when the Mongols under Khublai Khan successfully invaded and conquered China. The Mongols then established the Yuan Dynasty. Empire was splite by North and South Song Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 C.E. formed from the take down of The Yuan Dynasty(Mongols) Zhu Yuanzhang leader of rebellions agianst Yuan became 1st Emperor Zhu Di was Emperor Chengzu Height of Ming Dynasty From 1405 to 1433, Emperor Chengzu sent a eunuch named Zhenghe to lead Ming's fleets across the Indian Ocean. Vassels Lords Guilds Roman Catholic Jam12553-sup-0001-TableS1-S2-FigS1 Moral Code Warriors Vassel System Neo-Confucianism Women as Language Promote Speaking Contests a Tool Proficiency to more rights Three field system Delhi Sultanate Northern India conversion Afghan Turks Sultans welcomed religion because DIVERSITY OFFICE AND AFFAIRS OF MINORITY polytheism not appealing Disagreements with Hindus Bakti Movement The Mongols and Islam Ottoman Empire United by Osman in 1300 Used muskets and cannons Very lenient and accepting of religions Mehmed the Conqueror-> opened Constantinople to Jews/Christians Captured Mecca, Medina, Cairo, and Constantinople-> influential cities Great Muslim Empires of the Era Genghis Khan unites Mongols Mongols spread religion through Jihad religions spread along Silk Roads Religion spread throughout conquered people Golden Horde-Russia Yuan Dynasty-China Pax Mongolica with Kublai Khan Mongols -> great conquerors, horrible administrators Empire stretching from Persia to the North China Sea Spread gunpowder Fought in Crusades Impact Spread cultures, Islamic and Christian Improved trade in Asia and East Europe Made Silk road safe, b/c hectic during bubonic plague -they also help spread epidemic Conquered areas brought peace b/c rulers usually lenient (good example) Pax Mongolica Papper money, letters of credit Delhi Sultanate * Mamluk dynasty (1206-1290) * The Khilji dynasty (1290–1320) * The Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1413) * The Sayyid dynasty (1414–51) * The Lodi dynasty (1451–1526) franks Mosque of Jenne Turks: -Origin : Turks were originally Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Middle East. -Trade : Gained control of trade on the Mediterranean after controling many different societies; got responsible for Europe's growing interest and involvement in long-distance trade. -Invasion : Invaded Byzantine Empire, Europe, Constantinople, India (introduced Islam to India), and other more. Aztecs: -Tradition : Strong military tradition; ruled by absolute power. -Economy : agricultural based; cacao beans as currency. -Religion : priestly class; sacrifice ritual; bloodletting and human sacrifice. Vikings: -Effects on Europe: conquered most of coastal Europe; development of Feudalism; established trade routes. -Culture: Polytheistic religion; agriculture based economy; worrior EMR? Does to How Read Take a 243-page It Long (Nordic people): targets on monasteries; maneuverable boats; established communities in Scotland, France, Eastern Europe. Impact of migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas Consequences of plague pandemics By the trade the bubonic plague spread through Eurasia, the Mongol. During the 1330s plague erupted in southwestern China, then spread throughout China and central Asia, and by the late 1340s it had reached southwest Asia and Europe, it became known as the Black Death. Bubonic plague killed many people and it exposed population. Disrupted economies and societies throughout much of Eurasia and north Africa. The disease caused massive labor shortages, which in turn generated social unrest. The plague infectes rodents and it spread to others. In the early fourteenth century, Mongol military campaigns helped spread plague from Yunnan to China's interior; killed 90 percent of the population in Hebei. During the 1340s Mongols, merchants, and other travelers helped to spread the disease along the trade routes to China. Growth and role of cities Many Welcome 2015 SEPTEMBER Principal’s Back! Message: became prominent due to trade, like in Canton, Samarkand, Timbuktu, Cairo, and Venice. State building recovered in Western Europe. The Renaissance recovered in Western Europe. Education became important to people. Cultural diffusion Improved agricultural techniques in Europe. New tools andtechnologies. (the horseshoe and the horse collar) New Crops (hard durumwheat, rice, spinach, artichokes, eggplant, lemons, limes,oranges, and melon. Islam Christianity Judaism La Convivencia- the Co-Existence 711 to 1492 C.E. Spain: this was a Period in Spanish history where Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived in peace with eachother. Jews attempted to overthrow Abu Muslim in 747 C.E. In 829-31, the Egyptian Christians of the Nile delta rebelled against the Muslim authorities because of excessive taxation and religious persecution. This rebelion turned out to be a faliure. Yazid II (720-724) was an Umayyad Caliph that was known for ordering the destruction of Christian images within his controled territory. The Crusades: war waged by Christian Europe agianst Muslim Middle East to restore christian control over Jerusalem 1095-1291C.E. Lasted fermionic transport phenomena Chien, Chih-Chun ultracold one-dimensional. of and Bosonic atoms in years 1066 Granada massacre A Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred many of the Jewish population of the city. Early signs of Anti-semitism 1099 AD - When the Crusaders invaded they slaughtered Jews. The Jews were expelled from the city under “Christian” rule. Had to pay Jizya or a tax for being non-Muslim when under Muslim rule. Continuities Breaks use 13355261 Document13355261 the Silk Road patriarchal society Population increase Migrations trade and Cultural Exchange Wars Buddhism Hinduism Christianity Islam Religions improvments in Technology Empires Fiefs Civil Service Examinations Tang & Song continue use Based Confucian values Meritocracy-earned not inherited System survied change of ruling Cultural Differences Islam is on the rise, as well as the influence of Christianity on the people in Europe, bringing a clash between these beliefs (1200s) Set areas were then told to have an "official" religion, making less tolerence for other religions, and continuing conflict. With trade, there was an exchange of religions like Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity all throughout theh Silk Road. Such as the disagreement between Pagans and Christians, which has been continued since the 100s CE, Protestant churches split to fulfill the needs of its own people Hindu Symbol Money System In China they invented Flying Cash, which were letters of credit. Paper Money became used with its introduction in China and then commonly used by the Mongols near the year 1000, although they also used coins. Serfdom was common use for money system in Medevil Times which was for feudalism Islam With the introduction to Bhagavad Gita and his Bhakti movement in the 12 century, people in India are unified by the connection between Hinduism and Islam. Hindus and Delhi Sultanate, which forced Islam, were on less then friendly terms, caused 6-NYPPT Chapter the disagreement in cultural views.